domingo, 3 de junio de 2012

Monografa Business and Management


Is there enough energy in the world to cover human necessities?

Carolina Alabern
4eso G


Front cover………………………………………………………………………..page1
Answer to the question……………………………………………………………page4

Is there enough energy in the world to cover human necessities?

The world population of today is estimated to be around 7 billion people. The world population has had a continuous growth since half way through the fourteenth century. It is expected to reach an oustanding number of 10,5 billion people by 2050. This could reach to overpopulation, which would mean threats to the ecosystem. Problems like global warming and pollution will only get worse by the population expansion. You could already see a big difference between 2000 and 2005 with an amazing 383,047 million people in the entire world in five years. During the twentieth century there was the greatest increase in population ever seen, this was because there was such a change in the way of living of people. It was also due to the mortality rate as it increased because of sanitation and new medicines, also due to an increase in agriculture. It went from the year 1700 to the 2000 ten times more people. All around the world, the worlds population has slowly been declining since 1963 when it was a 2,19%, but growth remains very high in places like Latin America and The Middle East. In some places there is a negative population growth so it balances out.

The USA is probably the place that uses most energy in the whole world. This is due to the amount of people that live there. They use about 87,216 kWh when India only use 6,280 kWh a year. This big difference is because the USA is a very industrialised and India is not.  Here is a table with useful imformation.

Regional energy use (kWh/cap.)

Population (mil)

89 021
87 216

40 240
40 821

Middle East
19 422
34 774

8 839
18 608

1 333
Latin America
11 281
14 421

7 094
7 792


4 419
6 280

1 140
The World
19 421
21 283

6 688
This shows us that there are big differences between different countries in energy use. As I said before, this is only due to countries that are more industrialised and are more rich, not necessarily this but normally more industrialised countries are better off.. We could also observe that in China there is almost five times more population than in the USA but they use 1/8 of the energy that the USA use.

The worlds energy consumption increase over 5% in 2010. There was a slight decrease in 2009. This strong increase is the result of two converging trends. Industrialized countries which had experienced decreases in energy demand in 2009 have now recovered, almost having a historical trend. China and India did not change the demand, and have continued their high demand of energy. This drop in 2009 was all due to economic crisis.

In 2008 the total energy that was being consumed in all the world was 132,000 TWh. This is about 15 terawatts. This amount of energy to form with renewable energy would mean you would have to create a specific amount of solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, biomass, hydropower and ocean energy. It has been calculated that more than half of the energy has been consumed in the last two decades since the industrial revolution. This is despite advances in efficiency and sustainability. Because of such high increase in the population, the annual CO2  has increased a 10% and so has the gross energy production. There is an estimation of the remaining non-renewable energy worldwide with the remaining fossil fuels of and estimated 0,4 YJ which is not that much considering what we use every year. The available uranium left is about 2,5 YJ. Renewable energy comes from natural resources which are naturally replenished. As of 2010 about 16% of global energy consumption comes from renewable energy.

Solar energy is one way out of trouble, our earth receives and incredible supply of solar energy. The sun is just an average star, which has been up there for about 4 billion years. In one minute, it provides enough energy to supply our needs for one year. In one day, it provides more energy than we could consume in 27 years. Apparently you could say that three days of the amount of radiation strikes on our earth, is equivalent to the amount of energy stored in all fossil energy sources. Solar energy has a great potential if everyone agreed with it, but because not everyone wants to make changes in their way of living it makes it more difficult. People don’t want to spend a bit of money just to make better our planet. Solar power is clean green electricity that is created from sunlight, or heat from the sun. Having solar power in a home, generally means setting up solar photovoltaic or a solar thermal system on the roof. Solar energy is a renewable free source of energy that is sustainable and totally inexhaustible, unlike fossil fuels which are finite. It is also a non-polluting source of energy and it does not emit and greenhouse gases when producing electricity. It can supplement your entire or partial energy consumption. Using solar power means reducing your energy bills and saving money. They are low maintenance and unobtrusive, installing solar panels adds value to your home.

Another source of renewable energy is Hydroelectricity which is electricity generated by hydropower. This is made by the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is said, that it is the one most used in the world from renewable energy. It makes 16% of global electricity. It is produced in 150 countries. The bigges hydroelectricity plants are in China, Brazil and in Venezuela. Moving water is a very powerful source of energy responsable for lighting entire cities, even countries. It all started with the Greeks then they created kinetic         
energy from the water wheels. This source of energy consists of a water reservoir enclosed by a dam, so when the gates open the water will flow through and the turbines will spin and this will make electricity.
Wind power is another source of renewable energy. Wind power is growing at a rate of 30% annually, and it has a capacity of 238,000 megawatts. It is used in Europe, Asia and the United States. Wind power ir one of the most promising new energy sources. They are very expensive to build. As we have such technology now a days, wind energy could provide 20% of America’s electricity with turbines installed on less tan 1% of its land area, this would also mean that less tan 5% of the land would be occupied by wind equipment. This would leave 95% for everything else. Windmills have been around for about 1500 years, and now it has become affordable and even cheaper than fossil fuels. There are many places around the world that offer wind-generated electricity for only 2 to 3 cents per kWh. So in one household you could have 25% of your electricity from wind power and only spend $4 to $5 dollars a month. The Price of wind energy is now dropping so more people use it. This involves converting wind energy into electricity by using wnd turbines. Wind comes from atmospheric changes; changes in temperatura and pressure makes air move around the surface of the earth. A wind turbine captures the wind to produce energy. It is clean energy source that can be relied on for the long-term future. A wind turbine creates reliable, cost-effective, pollution free energy. It is affordable, clean and sustainable. One wind turbine can be sufficient to generate enough electrical energy for a household.

Biomass was a predominant fuel until the beginning of the nineteenth century. Now it has a small share in energy supply. It has gone up to about 220 GW used for heating in places like Spain, Germany and Poland. This term of energy refers to organic matters that store energy through the process of photosynthesis. It now exists in one form as plants, it may be transferred through the food chain to animals. This can be converted for everyday use in processes like combustion. This is when it releases the carbon dioxide stored in the plant. Many of these fuels that are used today come in the form of wood products or dried vegetation. It has become a widely used source of renewable energy in the last two decades. Biomass is a collective term for all plants and animals material. A number of different forms of biomass can be burned or digested to produce energy. Examples include Wood, Straw, poultry litter and energy crops such as willow and poplar grown on short rotation coppice and miscanthus. Biomass is a very versatile material and can be use to produce heat, electricity and a combination of heat and power. The UK has some of the largest examples of the use of Biomass to generate electricity.
There are many different forms of renewable energy, some other one could be tidal energy, ocean termal energy, wave energy, and hot fusión energy. Tidal energy uses the gravitational energy from the attraction of the sun., earth and moon. Ocean termal energy is when it exploits the greatest collector of solar energy on earth, the sea. Wave energy is when the waves crash and turbines spin, this is originated by the wind, which is driven by sunlight.  Hot fusión is not 100% renewable because it uses hydrogen, but hydrogen is so abundant that it is considered to be so much that it is limitless, especially for human purposes.

            All renewable energy forms have advantages and disadvantages. We can not really assure that all these energy sources could give us 100% of energy that we need, but it could give us most of it and it would mean that we would not damage the atmosphere like we are doing now. Like most renewable sources, none of these could really compete with inexpensive fossil fuels at the time. 

These sources of energy can really help the change from non-renewable energy to renewable energy. This is environmentally friendly energy, this would improve our planet and would mean that we would not be in danger of not having energy. Most of these sources of energy have low costs and are easy to run. All of these have the potencial to avoid us having trouble when there arent many non-renewable energy sources left.  At the moment these energy sources are a bit more expensive than fossil fuels.

Economic renewable energy development typically requires that countries exploit their natural renewable resources with subsidies reducing in line with technology costs and market maturity. Thailand has adopted such an approach to renewable development and while its biomass has the greatest renewable generation potential, the rapid growth of solar development could conceivably see solar challenge wind power as the kindon’s second most important renewable resource by the next decade. As a country, Thailand benefits front strong year-round solar radiation with the largely rural northeast Isaan región of the country benefiting most.

Windfarms do not cause long-term damage to bird populations. A large majority of birds can co-exist with operating windfamrs, but some species are harmed during construction. There should be more windfarms, people complain a lot about wind famrs but they dont realice how much damage there is because we are not using clean energy. There sould be renewable energy in each city.

Renewable energy is clean energy and non-polluting. Many forms do not emit any grenhouse gases or toxic waste in the process of producing electricity. It is sustainable energy source which can de relied on for the long-term unlike energy we use at the momento. Renewable energy is cost-effective and efficient. Increasingly, governments around the world are turning to renewable energy to end our dependence on fossil fuels.

I have reached a conclusion that yes there is enough energy in the world to cover human necessities, because our necessities in fact are taking a small proportion of the energy we consume, the rest is a waste.



Jürgen Peterman, Energy future, efficiency and renewable energies in the heating sector, Viessman.

miércoles, 23 de mayo de 2012

Federico García Lorca

Federico García Lorca (1898-1936), el componente más destacado del grupo poético del 27 y uno de los escritores españoles más universales, nació en Fuente Vaqueros en Granada y murió víctima inocente, a principios de la guerra civil. Fue un poeta, dramaturgo y prosista. Es el poeta de mayor influencia y popularidad de la literatura española del siglo XX. Murio ejecutado tras la sublevación militar de la Guerra Civil Española, por su afinidad con el frente popular y por ser abiertamente homosexual. 

Desde los 2 años, según uno de sus biógrafos, Edwin Honig,  Federico García Lorca mostró su habilidad para aprender canciones populares, y a muy corta edad escenificaba en miniatura oficios religiosos. Su salud fue frágil y no empezó a caminar hasta los cuatro años. Como estudiante fue algo irregular. De niño lo pusieron bajo la tutela del maestro Rodríguez Espinosa, en Almería. Se licenció en Derecho, aunque nunca ejerció la abogacía, puesto que su vocación era la literatura.

Lorca utiliza frecuentemente símbolos en su poesía. Se refieren muy frecuentemente a la muerte aunque, dependiendo del contexto, los matices varían bastante. Son símbolos centrales en Lorca:
  • La luna: es el símbolo más frecuente en Lorca. Su significación más frecuente es la de muerte, pero también puede simbolizar el erotismo, la fecundidad, la esterilidad o la belleza.
  • El agua: cuando corre, es símbolo de vitalidad. Cuando está estancada, representa la muerte.
  • La sangre: representa la vida y, derramada, es la muerte. Simboliza también lo fecundo, lo sexual.
  • El caballo (y su jinete): está muy presente en toda su obra, portando siempre valores de muerte, aunque también representa la vida y el erotismo masculino.
  • Las hierbas: su valor dominante, aunque no único, es el de ser símbolos de la muerte.
  • Los metales: también su valor dominante es la muerte. Los metales aparecen bajo la forma de armas blancas, que conllevan siempre tragedia.
Lorca maneja metáforas muy arriesgadas: la distancia entre el término real y el imaginario es considerable. En ocasiones, usa directamente la metáfora pura. Lorca es un poeta conceptista. en el sentido de que su poesía se caracteriza por una gran condensación expresiva y de contenidos, además de frecuentes elipsis.  Las metáforas lorquianas relacionan elementos opuestos de la realidad, transmiten efectos sensoriales entremezclados, etc.

La poesía lorquiana es el reflejo de un sentimiento trágico de la vida, y está vinculada a distintos autores, tradiciones y corrientes literarias. En esta poesía conviven la tradición popular y la culta. Aunque es difícil establecer épocas en la poética de Lorca, algunos críticos diferencian dos etapas: una de juventud y otra de plenitud.

Sus rasgos más sobresalientes de su poesía son: la inspiración andalucista, el dramatismo de las situaciones y un lenguaje que sorprende por su audacia. En 1929 viajó a Estados Unidos de América y escribió su obra lírica más innovadora, fruto de una crisis vital y estética. Una de las más bellas elegías de la poesía contemporánea. Como dramaturgo, revoluciono el panorama teatral con obras y la trilogía trágica. Su poesía ahondo en la belleza de la tierra y el pueblo de su natal Valencia. En su poesía exploro el simbolismo y el surrealismo, y cultivo el teatro con mucho éxito. Detenido al estallar la guerra civil y fue ejecutado arbitrariamente por el bando franquista.

Los tópicos recurrentes en la poesía y drama lorquianos son la libertad, el amor y –especialmente– el respeto y la admiración por la naturaleza femenina. En sus inicios, el romanticismo y la ambientación de su drama han sido asimilados al teatro decimonónimo, aunque es preciso señalar que Lorca logra desarrollar un estilo propio fácilmente identificable: no se trata de una mera imitación sino de verdadera creación.  

En relación a los temas y subtemas, el amor aparece el primer plano, y se muestra como un producto cósmico, pansexual. Subtemas derivados son la infancia, la esterilidad y la muerte.

1. Desde sus principios hasta 1928, se puede considerar como su primera etapa:
Funde en ellas lo popular y lo culto, la tradición y la modernidad. En el Romance gitano, conjunto de 18 romances, combina neopopularismo y vanguardismo. Presenta la Andalucía del llanto, representado en el pueblo gitano y su destino trágico. 

2. Desde 1929 hasta 1936, su experiencia americana da su fruto literario en el poemario de técnica surrealista: Poeta en Nueva York, utiliza el verso libre y las imágenes sugerentes e ilógicas del surrealismo para expresar sus sentimientos ante un mundo materialista e inhumano; critica y denuncia la injusticia, la miseria y la opresión a que están sometidos los marginados sociales (negros, judios...) 

3. A su regreso a España, escribe una impresionante elegía en homenaje a su amigo el torero Ignacio Sánchez Mejías, muerto en 1934: Llanto por Ignacio Sánchez Mejías(1935) obra en la que combina también surrealismo y neopopularismo. Otras obras importantes son: Diván del Tamarit y Sonetos del amor oscuro, ambas de publicación postuma. 

La obra de Lorca onjuga la tradición y la vanguardia, el esteticismo de la poesía pura junto con una poesía más humanizada.